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HISTORY

MUAY BORAN : WHAT IS TRUE?

1.  “Muay” is the martial art that Thai warriors have used since the ancient time.  

The root of Thai nation was founded approximately a thousand years ago (before 1238 A.D.).

At the time of its birth, there were many battle and feud with many empires near it. Battles back then were fought with melee weapons such as swords, rapiers, lance, spears, halberds, and other ancient weapons and were mostly scrambles. In order to emerge victorious, our ancestors invented the martial arts to be known as “Muay” to be taught to the warriors along with other weapon training, in the case they lose the weapons in a close quarter fight, they would still triumph over their opponents.

The “Muay” art used in the ancient battlefield was much more efficient than Muay Thai due to much more array of forms, techniques, and parts being used (such as knuckles, feet, knees, and elbows) comparing to Muay Thai. The ancient art of Muay also focuses on mutilating or killing the opponents with technique known as “Toom Tubp Jubp Hak” (which is grabbing, depleting opponent’s strength or use it against your opponent, wrestling, toppling, pushing down, arm; leg; neck; finger; and wrist breaking, biting, clawing, clinching, stomping, head-butt, eye injuring, and groin attack). The technique itself has many variations which could be used situationally. (The “Toom Tubp Jubp Hak” is the most advanced technique of “Muay,” consisting of 65 techniques with almost infinite variations.


2. The “Muay” martial arts, dating back to the foundation of Thai nation a thousand year ago is considered the root of  “Muay Kaad Chuek” “Muay Thai,” and “Amateur  Muay Thai” as the following chart.

“Muay”
“Muay Kaad Chuek”
“Muay Thai”
“Amateur Muay Thai”

 Some modern Thai people call “Muay” as “Muay Boran” or “Muay Thai Boran” (Boran means ancient) denoting that it precedes the current “Muay Kaad Chuek” “Muay Thai,” and “Amateur Muay Thai”. In this article, you might find assorted use of the words “Muay,” “Muay (Boran),” and “Muay Boran,” which should give you the idea that the art itself can be called with various name. However, it is the most correct to call it “Muay” since it is the name found in historical evidences.

 

4. “Muay Kaad Chuek” is a martial sport derived from “Muay (Boran). Therefore, the idea that “Muay Kaad Chuek” is the same as “Muay (Boran)” is a misconception. Historical evidences clearly indicates the “Muay Kaad Chuek” was developed from “Muay (Boran).” There is also a false assumption that there was no rule in “Muay Kaad Chuek” due to the fact that the official rules were not written in the scriptures. Any rule for the “Muay Kaad Chuek” would be mutually agreed prior to the fight. One of the natural prohibition for the sport is the full pattern of Toom Tubp Jubp Hak, preventing the fighters from breaking arms, legs, neck, fingers, biting, eye injuring, and making groin attack, since “Muay Kaad Chuek” was considered a festival entertainment and there was no need to mutilate or kill any opponent.

There were rules in “Muay Kaad Chuek” because it was a cultural fighting sport in festivals.

There was no rule in “Muay (Boran)” because it was a martial art meant for battlefields.

In “Muay Kaad Chuek” fighters are prohibited from mutilating or killing the opponents.

In “Muay (Boran),” it is essential to mutilate or kill the opponents since failing to do so might cost life.

In “Muay Kaad Chuek”, fighters are prohibited from breaking arms, legs, necks, and fingers, biting, injuring eyes, and doing groin attacks but there is no rule in “Muay (Boran)” except for the winner walks away alive.


The word “Kaad Chuek” refers to the use of rope or thread to wrap around the hands and wrists (and sometimes up to the elbows). The rope or thread being used would be prepared by soaking with starch gel or resin and leaving it to dry. The prepared rope would be harder and allow the fighters to hit harder. The harder rope would also serve as guard against the opponent’s attacks.

Sometimes, The Kaad Chuek Fighter  would coat their wet rope with glass-like rubbles (there was no glass in that age) before letting them dry in order to infuse the knuckle rope with the sharpness of the rubbles, to further harm the opponents by drawing blood. {Normally, the “Muay Kaad Chuek”(The Kaad Chuek Fighter) would use ordinary rope but fighters who practice in the occult as well would try their ability by fighting with sharp ropes.}

 In “Muay (Boran),” there is no rope wrapped on hands because Muay warriors need to use the “Toom Tubp Jubp Hak,” which includes grabbing, depleting opponent’s strength or use it against your opponent, wrestling, toppling, pushing down, arm; leg; neck; finger; and wrist breaking, biting, clawing, clinching, stomping, head-butt, eye injuring, etc. Attached ropes would obstruct the use of such techniques.
 

5. Muay Thai is derived from “Muay (Boran)” and “Muay Kaad Chuek”   

6. “Amateur Muay Thai” is derived from “Muay Thai”

7. Techniques used in “Muay Thai” and “Amateur Muay Thai” is only a part (approximately 20 – 30%) of what was used in “Muay (Boran).” (
Continue reading in Muay Thai: What is true?)

8. “Muay (Boran)” does not use the main or applied forms of Muay Thai since it precedes and originates Muay Thai, not vice versa.

     “Muay (Boran) originated back in the age when Thai nation formed (before 1238) while Muay Thai came into existence in 1929. (Read “History and Development from Muay to Muay Thai”) Any acclaimed Muay master who teaches main or applied forms of “Mae Mai Muay Thai” and “Look Mai Muay Thai” as “Muay (Boran)” is creating wrong understanding of “Muay (Boran),” disregarding the historical evidence of the development of Muay.

9. “Muay(Boran)” does not do “Wai Kru Ram Muay” because there is no time to waste in the real battlefield. It would only consist of short chanting (Borrigumkatha) before running at your opponents. Ancient Thai warriors also train in Jittanubhap, which is an art of using the intensely trained mind to control the body and increase the efficiency in fighting. There are many legends about it.

10. The Wai Kru Ram Muay tradition originated with “Muay Kaad Chuek” and carried over to “Muay Thai”

11. “Muay(Boran)” was not trained by kicking banana trees: There are misconceptions about the training of Muay warriors that they train by kicking banana trees, which is outright false. Imagine how many trees would be wasted, whether the banana tree growth rate would be sufficient or not, how many acres of banana orchard it would take to train a warrior for many years, how kicking such soft trees would help a warrior getting stronger, and most importantly, how would ancient Thai people would waste such useful plants? Most parts of the trees could be used one way or another, such as cooking, making packages, and rolling sheet for tobacco. Ancient Thai people would not kick a banana tree except for the children due to their reckless behaviors but they would be scolded for it.

In real Muay training, the masters would create specific equipment from natural materials. The younger trainee would start with softer materials while the full-fledged warriors would be trained with harder equipment to improve endurance and strength of their knuckles, feet, knees, elbows, muscles, tendons, and bones as well as their mastery and agility in using Muay Weapons to the optimum accuracy, power, and timing.

 Some equipment were designed to have moderate hardness for punch, kick, push kick, knee and elbow strike training with unprotected body parts, while some are intentionally designed to be very hard to further train the warriors. There are also training in wrestling, scripted partner training, sparring, training of the 65 positions of Toom Tubp Jubp Hak for the thorough mastery in the infinite variations.

When using hard equipment, rope would be wrapped around the contact parts of the training warrior to prevent serious injury, which would halt the training or, in worst case, render that warrior incapable. It would then be developed into the form of “Muay Kaad Chuek” .

"Muay(Boran)" is a martial art which can be applied for self defense, Muay Thai, K-1, Kick Boxing, MMa and UFC. This because "Muay(Boran)" uses punches, feet, knees and elbows similarly to Muay Thai but has broader variety of basics weapons skills and also has a wider range of fighting methods, patterns and techniques than Muay Thai.

 

Therefore, using punches, feet, knees and elbows following "Muay(Boran) principles is much more dangerous and difficult to predict than Muay Thai.

Furthermore, "Muay(Boran) has and advanced fighting techniques called "Toom Tubp Jubp Hak", wich makes "Muay(Boran)" much more effective than "Muay Thai"  

 

For all knowledge that I, GM Deycha, have trained and hereby present
I would like to praise to the greatness in all Thai ancestors and 2 Muay masters of mine.
People who learn or take the knowledge of Muay from this course as your own,
please regard the Thai ancestors and my Muay masters with high respect.

Any knowledge or information I, GM Deycha, have said, written, taught, or demonstrated,
has never been for my own fame.
As a Muay expert of the Sports Authority of Thailand, it is my mission to ensure the art of Muay,
as a national and cultural inheritance, is well and correctly known.
I never intended to step into the competition of Muay business,
but many wrongs need to be corrected and I need to take action. The facts I said that:
“Muay (Boran)” does not use any main or applied form of Muay Thai; and
“Muay (Boran)” is not trained by kicking banana trees
are the facts that must be spoken loud to lift the misconceptions.
I apologize if it crosses with teachings or irritates any masters out there.
Muay Martial Art must be learned step by step.
 

 

Muay Boran started way back in the medieval ages when wars were fought with bows and arrows, swords, and pikes. And in hand-to-hand combat arms, legs, knees, and elbows were also used as weapons.
This sport which was included in military training was made famous by King Nareusan 1560 A.D.
 During one of the many battles between Burma and Siam he was captured. The Burmese knew of his prowess as the best unarmed fighter in the realm and gave him a chance to fight with their best for his freedom.
 Upon his return to Siam he was hailed as a hero and Siamese-style boxing, as it was called then, was soon recognized as a national sport. Boxing in this style reached its zenith of popularity about two hundred years ago, i.e., in the reign of Prachao Sua (King Tiger), when it was indulged in by all classes of the population.
From those days up until the early part of this century, the fighters, particularly those in provinces, used horsehide strips and later help in lieu of gloves.
 It was also a practice at one time to grind pieces of glass into the help if both contestants agreed. Since these practices were obviously dangerous to the fighters' health, regular boxing gloves were introduced about 50 years ago and have been used ever since. 

To the Thais, Muay Thai is regarded as a prestigious national sport. Thai boys will in one or another way, intentionally or unintentionally, learn how to box Thai style. Even Thai girls will know enough of the basic principles and to be able to use it for self-defense when necessary.
Muay Thai, called Thai Boxing by foreigners, is our national sport and is now getting more popular in many countries, especially in Japan where a large numer of young Japanese are now being trained to fight professionally. But in Japan this fighting is called "Kick Boxing."
At present "Kick Boxing" is internationally known as a Japanese martial art. Surely the true name, "Muay Thai" should be retained internationally as the Japanese terms Kendo, Judo, or Karate have been.
There is no [clear] evidence to show the time of origin of Thai-Style boxing.
 It can only be assumed that Thai boxing existed since the Thai emigrated from the South of China. [Further archaeological work needs to be done in this area, both in the Thai and English languages.]

The [Tai tribe] immigrants had to hide from attackers and met with resistance from local people. In short, they had to fight endlessly for their survival. By the time they managed to settle in the "Gold Promontory", the Thais had gone through to countless battles and many lives had been lost.
The ancient weapons consisted only of spears, swords, pikes or bows and arrows. But in hand-to-hand combat weapons become clumsy, and elbows, knees, feet and fists became more practical. This must have been extremely successful, as it was then developed into a form of martial arts used in battle, and this was the origin of Muay Thai.
When the Thais finally settled down and built a city, and extended their territory to become a large country, there was a need for an army to defend the country. Soldiers in those days had to learn Muay Thai along with the use of traditional weapons.
Thus there was also the need for Kru Muay, or teacher of Thai boxing. Various tactics for attack and defense were developed, called "boxing tactics". Later, laymen began to take up this form of fighting, as a form of self-defense, and as a handy qualification to become a soldier, which would also lead to further advancement depending on their ability and talent.

During the Ayudhya period, which was a period of consecutive fighting against the neighboring countries of Burma, Cambodia and Vietnam, history records state that King Sri San Petch or Khun Luang Sorasak known as Phra Chao Sua (The Tiger King) often boxed incognito in various up-country temple fairs.
 He is said to have been a skilled boxer, and enjoyed the sport so much that he often disguised himself thus in order to test his skill against villagers and thus became quite a legend in his own time.
When Ayudhya fell in 1767 A.D. many Thais became prisoners of War. In 1774 the King of Burma held a festival to celebrate the Chedi containing the Bhuddha's relics in Rangoon, with various forms of entertainment and festivities. This included a boxing display for the King by a Boxer named "Nai Khanom Tom" a prisoner of war from Ayudhya. Pit against Burmese boxers, Nai Khanom Tom defeated 10 Burmese opponents in a row, and also became quite a legend.
During the reign of King Tak Sin the Great, the King had a close aid-de-amp named "Phraya Pihai Dab Hak" who had studied the art of Muay Thai with many famous teachers and displayed his talent for the King.
As a result, he was chosen to become a soldier, and was later promoted to the position of Chao Muang (governor) with his name recorded in history.
In the Ratanakosin Period, Muay Thai was still a national art form, with competitions in annual national festivities. Time-keeping was done by floating a pierced coconut shell. When the coconut sank, a drum would be beaten to signal the end of a round.

In 1788, during the reign of King Rama I, two french brothers arrived in Thailand by boat, having defeated many boxers across the Indo-China Penninsula.
King Rama I consulted the Crown Prince, his brother, who offered to find boxers to fight against the Frenchmen. Phraya Phra Klang would accept the challenge, settling the bet at 50 chang (4,000 bhat).
The Crown Prince chose a boxer named Muen Plan of the Royal Guards. The match was held in the grounds of the Grand Palace.
Muen Plan wore full battle regalia--bare-chested, seeped in magic charms, cabalistic writing and oils to ensure invulnerability. When the fight began, the large French fighter tried to attack, aiming for the neck and collar-bone. Muen Plan defended himself with Muay Thai.
The other Frenchman, seeing his brother making no progress became frustrated, and pushed Muen Plan's back to stop him from backing away.
Members of the Royal Guards saw this break of boxing etiquette and proceeded to help Muen Plan tackle the two Frenchmen until they had to be carried back to the boat.
They set sail the next day, with no thought of ever challenging a Thai Boxer again.  

During the reign of King Rama V, Thai boxing matches were widely popular, boxing matches were held for the King's pleasure, ad skilled boxers received titles from the King, for example Muen Muay Mee Chue from Chaiya, Muen Muay Man Mudh from Lopburi, Muen Cha-ngad Cherng Chok from Korat.
Also in this period boxing camps were established. Members of the royal family sent out talent scouts to recruit potential boxers from up-country and arranged matches between camps. Winners would receive money and valuable prizes. This period could be called the Golden Age of Muay Thai.
During the reign of King Rama VI, Thai boxing matches became more widespread. Matches that used to be held in make-shift rings in any available courtyard became a standard raised ring surrounded by ropes.
The first ring was built in 1921 at Suan Kularp field. Although standard rings were available, boxers still bound their hands with rope. Foreign boxers came to take on Thai boxers. An important free-style match took place between Young Harntalay and Chin Chang from China which attracted a huge crowd of spectators.
The result was that Young Harntalay floored Ching Chang with a beautiful kick. In this period, they also had referees in the ring, and kept time by the clock.
These innovations were probably adopted from abroad. Rope binding was needed until 1929 when boxing gloves took its place. Earlier at the Lumpini Park Ring, a Filipino boxer gave an international style boxing exhibition with boxing gloves. Later, gloves were also used in student boxing matches called "Muay Farang", and in professional international boxing between Thai and foreign boxers. This led the organizers of Thai-Style boxing to see that gloves are less dangerous than rope-binding, and decided that gloves should be adopted in Muay Thai, but fighting with elbows, knees, feet and fists would still be allowed.

Although many improvements or changes were applied from the type of ring, breaking each bout into rounds, using the minute-system of time-keeping, and using gloves, one aspect of Thai-style boxing remained the same--the jock strap. Originally, the jock-strap consisted of a triangular-shaped pillow tied to the waist, with a strap tied behind from between the legs. The pillows were red or blue color according to the boxer's corner. These pillows were used until one boxer went to Malaysia and saw foreign boxers use jock-straps. He brought the idea back to Thailand, and since then jock-straps have replaced the triangular pillows.
During the reign of King Rama VII, in the revolutionary period, permanent boxing stadiums were established both in Bangkok and in the provinces.
They gradually disappeared in 1942 during World War II. After the war, boxing stadiums sprang up like mushrooms overnight. Skilled boxers from up-country flocked to Bangkok to take part in tournaments. Finally the first standard boxing stadium was established--the Rajdamnern Stadium, in 1945.
Rules were set, and later on regular bouts were set at 5 rounds of 3 minutes each, with a two-minute interval between rounds. The weight was taken down in stones like race-horses, and later converted into kilograms.  
In the early days, the match-maker system was used; the stadium officials would organize matches providing cup or talent jackets as prizes. Matches were not classified into weight groups until many years later when the pound system replaced stones and kilograms. International names were given for each weight group, such as flyweight and bantamweight. Matches were arranged to select a champion for each class, following the international style.

Muay Thai is still developing, but what remains unchanged is the use of the pipe and drums as musical accompaniments for the matches, and is considered a unique characteristic of Muay Thai. Muay Thai has been initiated under many names, which have not received prolonged interest because the original has already became known world-wide.  
Many additions have been made to the regulations of Muay Thai. It is forbidden now to hit the private parts since this technique has become quite infamous as a form of attack and is considered debasing for the fine art of Thai boxing. Muay Thai remains a national art form. If all parties concerned help to uplift and conserve this form of martial arts, and pass it onto following generations, it will remain a valuable possession of the Thai nation.

Paak Tai - Southern Styles
Muay Chaiya
Muay Chaiya is the style of the South, created in Chaiya city in the province of Surathani in the South of Thailand. The style was created by a soldier named Por Tan Mar from Bangkok who eventually became a monk in the temple of Wat Tung Jab Chang in Chaiya city, where he remained until his death.
It was during his monkhood that Ajarn Por Tan Mar developed the Muay Chaiya style.
He taught the style to the governor of Chaiya ("Praya Vajisata Ya Rat") named "Kam Sriyaphai". The governor had a son called "Kiet Sriyaphai" who learnt Muay Chaiya from his father.
Kiet Sriyaphai also learnt other styles from 12 different Ajarn's. He was to become the Master of Muay Chaiya.
The last Ajarn of Kiet Sriyaphai was the famous Ajarn Kimsaing who was master of the Paak Klang style.
One of the best students of Ajarn Kiet Sriyaphai, Kruu Tong, has taught many Thai people who are still living today.
It is believed that the style of Muay Chaiya is more than 250 years old.
The Muay Chaiya stance is very low and compact, with the center of gravity between the legs. Both knees are bent and all the joints are facing forward, ready to be used as a shield against any incoming attack. In Muay Chaiya, the fists are placed one higher than the other, facing upwards. Proponents of the style usually lead with the right side of the body but can use both sides very well.

Muay Chaiya specializes in blocking with the elbows and knees. Every leg or arm is bent, even when the boxer attacks. Limbs are never extended completely. Some people call it the "Durian Style", named after a fruit covered in very sharp spikes.
The footwork is fast and smooth, and sometimes the body weight is placed entirely on one leg. The Muay Chaiya boxer often moves in a springing motion. The attacks are very quick and come as a series of machine-gun like blows coming from all angles. Muay Chaiya is considered by some teachers to be a hybrid style. This is because the person who developed the style, Ajarn Por Tan Mar, brought the style from Bangkok.
The Muay Chaiya style was developed by a monk, so the style carries many Buddhist concepts amongst its teachings. The Muay Chaiya boxers were trained in meditation and the Thamma (teachings of the Buddha).
The Muay Chaiya boxers wrap only their hands as they want make their primary weapon, the elbow, as effective as possible.

Muay Maa Yang
Muay Maa Yang is another less well known southern style of Muay Thai. The name "Maa Yang" translated from Thai means "The Horse's Walk". The master of this style was called Kruu Tankee.
The classic stance of this style has the boxer with one leg raised up in a guard position, with the same hand held close to the hip, the other hand in front of the face also in a guard position.
Kruu Tankee was well known for his cruelty whilst fighting, so was not a well liked teacher. One story has Kruu Tankee removing the eye of his opponent Kruu Noree (Muay Chaiya Style) who broke Kruu Tankee's forehead with a jumping kick. Kruu Noree continued to fight after losing his eye, but later died of a hemorrhage related to his injuries.

Paak Eesaan (The eastern style of Muay Thai, also known as Muay Korat)
Muay Korat is named after the place where the style originated; Na Khorat Rachasima which is located in the center of Thailand towards the east. The style of Muay Korat appears to the public around the time of King Rama IV (date needed), but perhaps the Korat people have had this style for more than a thousand years.
The governor of the city of Na Khorat Rachasima, Phra Hemsamahan was since we know the transmitter of Muay Korat. Phra Hensamahan teach the style to Deng Thaiprasert who became the first fighter to represent the Korat style fighting in front of the King, and winning the competition acquiring the title of "Muan Changat Cherng Chok", meaning "The King's Champion".
Another student of the art, taught by Phra Hemsamahan, was Kruu Bua Wathim. This is considered the real master of the Muay Korat system. Kruu Bua became a soldier and taught cadets in the Army all his life. His real name was Kruu Bua Ninarcha, meaning "The Black Horse".
Muay Korat is considered to be the Muay Thai of the East.
The stance in Muay Korat is quite different from other styles. The stance is quite long and very narrow with both feet almost in one line, both pointing forward. The hands are placed one in front of the other, lined up together in front of the nose. The front, or lead leg is straight and the knee is locked. The back leg is also straight, tensed and ready to kick upwards, or to use footwork to change the angle against the opponent. The back leg heel is also up off the floor. The body's center of gravity is close to the front leg with the head positioned over the front foot, body leaning forward.
Muay Korat kicks and punches are completely straight. The kick travels in an upwards arc, twisting a little bit to reach your opponents head or neck.
This style of Muay Thai prefers to intercept an attack by simultaneous block and strike, or to choose to evade an attack by moving out of range. Rarely does the Korat style teach students to block and then attack. The kind of footwork used is "Suua Yang", which means "Tiger Walk". These techniques are closely guarded. The most powerful weapon in Muay Korat is called "Viang Kwai", means "Swing of the Buffalo". This technique is executed after a kick and uses the knuckles to strike the opponent behind the ear. Another famous attack is called "Taa Krut" which is used as a counter-attack, launching two strikes simultaneously.
In ancient times, the boxers of Muay Korat followed a Buddhist Code known as "Sin Haa", the five precepts. Meditation was a very important part of their training, followed by a strong respect for seniors and the golden rule of not to fight in the ring with other Muay Korat boxers.

Paak Klang (The central style of Muay Thai, also known as Bangkok Style)
Muay Paak Klang is the Bangkok or central style. Perhaps Muay Lopburi was part of Muay Paak Klang.
The master of this famous style was "Ajarn Kimsaing" who was from Ayuthaya. Ajarn Kimsaing learned Muay Ayuthaya from Kruu Kiao. He then moved to Bangkok to study international boxing and Muay Paak Klang with "Luang Vitsam Darunkon".
The stance in Muay Paak Klang is not so wide. The arms are held low and the fists are clenched facing upwards. Both arms are placed at the same height, parallel to each other pointing forward, with the left hand held forward slightly.
Sometimes the front foot is held off the ground, extended outwards, but pointing down towards the opponent. The footwork in this style is very interesting; when the Muay Paak Klang boxer steps, his feet come together with his hands held in front of his face in a high guard position, then the boxer steps outward again, feet separating and the guard lowering again.
The style is sometimes known as the "Ghost steps" as Muay Paak Klang boxers move so quickly and smoothly with little effort, seemingly covering ground in many places at the same time.
The master of this style, Ajarn Kimsaing was the last Ajarn of the very famous teacher of the Muay Chaiya style; Ajarn Kiet Sriyaphai.
Muay Paak Klang boxers wrap their hands down to the middle of the forearm.

Paak Klang - Muay Lopburi
This style born in the Ayuthaya Period when King Narai was on the throne. At this time a lot of foreigners were working with the King, so it is believed that Ajarn Muun Men Mat learned deadly skills from them.
The typical stance of Muay Lopburi looks almost identical to that of a western boxer around the 1900's, the classic upright stance with both arms extended outwards, both forearms pointing forwards. This style is based in very accurate and deadly punches. The most dangerous weapons of Muay Lopburi were the upper cuts to the opponents adam's apple and the thumb strikes to the eyes. This style was nominated as one of the most clever and tricky styles of the era. Sometimes the boxers would fake an injury waiting for an opportunity to attack. Some say that this style was part of another style called "Muay Paak Klang" or the central style.
Muay Lopburi wrapped the arm only halfway in cotton twine, and sometimes no wraps were used.
Sadly, this style has been lost completely. The premier Ajarn (teacher) of this dangerous style was called "Muun Men Mat", meaning "Ten Thousand Accurate Punches". Legend has it that Ajarn Muun Men Mat didn't teach Thai people his art because in one of his last fights he killed a man with a fatal blow. After this he decided to stop teaching and lived in a Buddhist Temple helping Monks. This was in the Ayuthaya Period.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

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